A 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal on 25 April, 2015 creating large scale of damage and casualties. Strong aftershocks, including a 6.7 magnitude quake on 26 April, continue to threaten the lives of thousands of people and to further damage buildings and infrastructure. According to latest earthquake intensity mapping, about 9 million people are affected in 39 districts, out of Nepal’s 75 districts. Out of these, over 2 million people live in the 14 most critically hit districts.
The earthquake has caused a number of landslides and avalanches. Many villages were turned into rubbles and those which have survived forced to live at highly vulnerable situations. Number of historic buildings collapsed, temples ruined, roads destroyed, water and power supply system collapsed. According to latest reports, total of 8856 people dead and injured 22309 people all over Nepal.
Displacement in urban and rural areas has an immense impact on daily life due to earthquake disaster. . Displacement estimates have not been verified but secondary data analysis and earthquake intensity mapping suggest that over 600,000 houses have been damaged and that 2.8 million people have been displaced. The situations lacking of law and order may exacerbate the existing risks and vulnerabilities faced in particular by women and girls. The severe impact occurred on the agriculture that is main basis of livelihood of majority of Nepalese people. FAO’s field survey shows that majority of them lost their seed due to earthquake. Similarly, majority of people in earthquake hit districts lost their livestock which are primary source of income for rural people. Due to loss of livestock, the sources of income for rural people reduced which they used to earn by selling milk and meat products. According to PDNA, it is estimated that a total of 148 million annual workdays were lost in earthquake affected districts which is equivalent to NPR. 27.5 billion of total labour earning. Majority of people lost their houses by the earthquakes as a result they invested their savings to reconstruct their houses after earthquake which impacted their regular earnings.
The impact of earthquake on lives of people and livelihood was even worse in Kabhre and Dolakha districts, where Sarbodaya Nepal been working with the financial and technical support of Fondazione Un Raggio di Luce Onlus (FRL) since long. Both of the districts are categorized among the hardest hit 13 districts by government.
According to the government estimation, in Kabhre there were about 300 deaths and 1500 injuries, likewise in Dolakha 150 deaths and over 700 injuries. In Kabhre 30,000 houses were destroyed and 18,000 houses damaged, likewise in Dolakha 5,000 houses destroyed and 35,000 houses damaged. With regards to estimation of FRL/Sarbodaya working VDCs, it was reported that about 200 houses been destroyed and 500 houses damaged in Dolakha (Map 2) with one death, whereas in Kabhre (Map 3) about 150 houses of the project beneficiaries destroyed and 400 houses damaged.
In such condition, the families whose houses were completely or partially destroyed by the devastating earthquake needed immediate support of food, drinking water and sanitation and temporary shelter to protect them from vulnerabilities. The members of cooperative approached to Sarbodaya/FRL for seeking immediate support.
Considering the disaster situation dreadful condition of victims, Sarbodaya Nepal immediately implemented an emergency response program with relief support activities in co-operation with FRL-Italy and other international donors and supporters. This report covers the description of activities basically funded by FRL Italy during June 2015 to July 2016.
D. Approach and Strategy for Emergency Response :
The emergency response program was implemented adopting human rights-based, integrated and collaborative approach respecting international standards on humanitarian response such as neutrality, impartiality, transparency etc. For this, additional focus was given to respond immediate needs and aspiration of affected communities avoiding duplication of services in the area. The emergency support focused to the disaster affected members of cooperatives established by FRL/Sarboday Nepal in past.
Sarobdaya Nepal adopted following key strategies and approaches for relief distribution and emergency response:
a) Conduct coordination meetings with the district authorities – CDO (Chief district Officer), LDO ( Local Development Officer) and DEO (district education officer), district agriculture office (ADO) and other line agencies of in Dolakha, Kabhre and Sindhupalchok
b) Undertake Initial rapid assessment of damage and victims including collection of information from VDC office, villages and local disaster local committees
c) Held Meeting, interaction with members of DDRC ( district disaster relief committee), and members of local Relief Coordination Committee (RCC) at villages as well as management committees of cooperatives, other aid agencies in the area
d) Collection of lists of victims from the VDC Office/VDC office and at community level for effective distribution of relief items to real affected population
e) Undertake Relief materials distribution at community in presence of the VDC level Committee, executive board members of Sarbodaya Nepal, members of management committee of respective cooperatives, community people, teachers and local security personnel
In addition, one of key strategy adopted by Sarbodaya Nepal was focusing its emergency relief support among the members of two cooperatives in Dolakha and Kabhre considering proper utilization of limited resources, having prior knowledge of geography, trust of people and a kind of thought of obligation to support its beneficiaries at the time of crisis .
For this, In Dolakha the two VDCs, namely Bulung and Laduk were selected covering the members of Mahila Adharsila Saving and Credit Cooperative Limited (WFSCCL). In Kabhreplanhok, 5 VDCs namely Nasikasthan, Ugrachandi-Nala, Ugratara, Saradabatase, Rabiopi and Banepa Municipality were selected.
The target households are selected among the 719 families of members of two cooperatives. Only household's members of cooperative were supported under this relief and rehabilitation schemes. However with help of other donor agencies, Sarbodaya Nepal has supported 1177 families / households in Kabhre and Bhattedanda of Lalitpur districts.
E. Key Achievements and outputs Delivered
With the support from FRL-Italy, the emergency response program has accomplished number of activities and achieved remarkable outputs and results.
Key outputs of the program are summarized in box 1 and major achievements are described in subsequent chapters in this report. Food, Nutrition, Medicine & Training
1. Water, Health and Sanitation
1.1. Awareness and Counseling by FCHVs
Considering the dire situation of outbreak of different diseases, related to water borne, and effect of earthquake on the health of the children and PLWs, the role of the FCHVs were foreseen. The existing trained FCHVs provided refresher training under trailer made course for five days in each VDC. The FCHVs were provided essential materials, and paid a minimal amount of service charge per day i.e. NPR 250 per day. The trained FCHVs were allowed to conduct two post- training counseling activities was carried out by the FCHVs to raise awareness about health and nutrition in post disaster scenario in their respective working VDCs of Dolakha district at this time 1500 women were consulted and provided essential feedback on the safer motherhood, child protection, nutrition, sanitation and family support to the young mothers. Per month two post- training counseling activities was carried out by the FCHVs to raise awareness about health and nutrition in post disaster scenario in their respective working VDCs of Dolakha district at this time 530 women were consulted and provided essential feedback on the safer motherhood, child protection, nutrition, sanitation and family support to the young mothers.
1.2. FCHVs Training for 40 persons:
A. FCHV training in Dolakha
Four days FCHVs training for 20 members from Bulung and Laduk VDCs was conducted at Bulung VDC health post of Dolakha on 11 August 2015 to 14 August.
Post- training, the FCHVs have started to raise awareness about health and nutrition in post disaster scenario in their respective working VDCs. 45 FCHVs from Dolakha and Kabhre districts have conducted eight sensitization meeting during four month of periods in their own working group / VDCs. 3500 persons attended the meeting and received counseling services and information on nutrition, childcare, sanitation etc. Follow up were conducted by the project facilitators of the respective VDCs and programme officer from Sarbodaya Nepal. The FCHVs were paid for their daily service cost as minimal remuneration @ 225 NPR per day. With help the counseling service from the project the local level sanitation has improved, people aware about use of toilets use, potable water, and nutritious foods for children, pregnant women and postpartum mother.
B. FCHVs training in Kabhre
Five days training was conducted for the FCHVs in Kabhre during August 11-15, 2015, the training was facilitated by the trainer of DPHO Kabhre. 20 existing FCHVs were trained on earthquake sensitivity and how to improve care practices of mothers, infants during emergencies. After this training the FCHVs were continuously working to raise awareness and distribution of essential materials for PLWs provided by different agencies.
The services provided by the FCHVs
- The FCHVs facilitated regular fortnightly community facilitation meeting reached to 3500 people during one year.
- FCHVs facilitate to pregnant and lactating women (PLWs) and young babies for regular immunization.
- As consequences of mobilization of FCHVs and other volunteers there were no incidents of outbreak of any communicable diseases.
- FCHVs involved in the counseling and other service providing activities were paid NPR 225 to 250 per day as facilitation cost for per facilitation.
- In each district one local social mobilizer was recruited whose responsibility was to prepare and provide monthly activity report to the Sarbodaya Nepal.
1.3. Essential Medicine Support
Two health posts in Dolakha (Bulung and Laduk) and 2 health posts in Kabhre (Nala and Rabiopei) received essential medicine to response immediate emergency medical need in the areas. There were 20 types of medicines provided as per need of the respective health posts and following the recommendations put forth by respective district public health offices (DPHO) such as such as: oral degradation solution, metronidazole, bandage, gauge, thermometer, diclophenac sodium chloride, ciprofloxacin (ear and eye drops), clove oil, buscopan etc.
It was found from the records of the health posts that 150 families in Kabhre and 200 families in Dolakha directly benefited through such emergency medicine support. Those drugs were distributed on different dates on May 23 and 25 in Kabhre and on May 26 and 27 in Dolakha district respectively.
2. Emergency Food, Utensil and Clothes
2.1. Essential food support for needy households
Essential food support for needy families 603 families among them Kabhre 130 families and in Dolakha 473 families has been supported collected quotations from local suppliers in Kabhre and Dolakha. Basic set of food items provided equivalent to NPR 1881 (Euro: 16) per family. The standard package of items was prepared in consultation of local affected population. The package of food items for each family for Kavre was: 30 kg rice, 1 kg lentil, 2 kg salt, 2 lit mustard oil, 0.5 kg species/cumin, 2 kg sugar, 1 kg beans and 3kg beaten rice. However, in Dolakha, it was 30 kg rice, 2 kg sugar, 1 kg salt, 2 pieces washing shop, bathing soap 2 pieces, and tooth paste and brush 1 set.
The families used to work for recovering the agriculture, livestock and enterprises. The rubbles cleared constructed houses and supported family. The government is providing NPR 200,000.00 per family those damaged houses and also prepared and shared models of houses those are resilient to earthquake. Under our support 1177 households managed to work for recovery.
2.2 Seed bin support to the neediest household
Initially 180 seed containers (bins) were planned for the neediest and selected families from the cooperative members. The provision of grain bin is come up with an idea that the storage of some of the families destroyed by the earthquake. They had problem of storage. If seed bin is provided to them then they can keep their grains safely.
The emergency project has provided a total of 326 seed bins. The seed bins were used for storing the food gains those received from different agencies and seed grains. The project has distributed more than the originally planned numbers.
Such seed bins were provided based on the preferences by the community people. In Dolakha seed bins were plastic/PVC with capacity of 200 liter while in Kavre the seed bins were of metallic with same capacity. Distribution of seed bins were found highly effective in terms of storage of seed by the famers particularly at situation when their traditional storage system were damaged.
3. Emergency Farming Support Seeds
3.1. Support for the winter crops seeds:
As per the project proposal, support for about 700 families of cooperative members was planned to for essential seeds of winter seasonal crops. However only 311 families were managed to support with the planned budget, the rest of the families were supported by the other agencies working in the project VDCs.
Crop Seeds support to members of cooperative was provided based on field assessment and respecting demand and need of beneficiaries. In Dolakha, each family received 10 kg wheat seed and 2 kg of mustard seed covering 226 hh/farmers/member of cooperative. These quantities of winter crop seeds were enough for one hectares of land. However, in Kavre, total of 107 HH/farmers received vegetable seeds covering 9 types of vegetables (Cauliflower, peas, broccoli, cabbage, carrot, cow pea, radish, mustard bean). During monitoring visits, it was found that cooperative members utilized all provided seeds and found happy for their good production. All families grown enough vegetales for their faimlies and they amanged to grow surplus vegetables for selling and earned extra income for their families
All the seeds were distributed by local cooperatives in both of the districts,
3.2 Training on agriculture - Emergency support for army worm control
Provided pest control support to 300 families of Bulung and Laduk VDCs. Outbreak of armyworm has heavily damaged the summer/ rainy season crops like maize, finger millets, seed beds of rice, cardamom and other vegetable crops. On average the damaged on 3 ropanis of crops in two project VDCs and many surrounding VDCs in northern Dolakha. Some details about the insect are as follows:
This destructive crop pest gets its name because it travels in small insect armies and consumes just about everything in its path. There’s a number of species of armyworm caterpillars. They’re most active at night and hide in plants and under garden debris during the day. In their larval stage, army worms attack a variety of crops as well as grasses, sometime moving en masse to new areas in a way that brings to mind, as its name suggests, an army on the march. The assault is mostly aerial, with the gray moths usually arriving under cover of darkness to lay eggs. The biggest invasion of army worms usually occurs after a cool, wet spring. The armyworms (Spodoptera exigua) are green with light stripes. Adults are gray, mottled moths with a small white dot in the center of each forewing and dark margins on the hind wings. Armyworms are prolific and responsive to favorable conditions. Their eggs are laid in fluffy masses on crowns of seedlings and on leaves of older plants. In 5-10 days tiny caterpillars hatch and feed for several weeks. They then pupate and emerge as adults 10 days later. Three and more generations are commonly produced each season. Armyworm may remain active all year in natural environments.
These insect larvae stay close to the ground, feeding on grasses and other low-growing plants. Later in the season, they move up to feed on plant leaves and fruit. Army worms “skeletonize” leaves of maize, millet, rice seedbed, green vegetable and cardamom. They feed on leaf whorls and burrow into the ears. Including young early-season maize, board leaf vegetables, rice seedbeds, cardamom and other succulent green leaves are vulnerable to worm attacks. The insect also started to attack on pasture land. This insect has severely attacked almost every farms of maize in Bulung, Laduk, Orang and other northern Dolakha on maize and other rainy season crops at seedbed or early stages. In addition to the big shocks of earthquake, the armyworm attack has equally created big threat of food scarcity in next season because insect has attacked on the standing crop. According to our rough estimation of field observation about 30-40% of the crop has been damaged by this insect. After our field visits, Sarbodaya Nepal requested to department of agriculture to control the insect, with advice of DoA, we provided some insecticides and spray tank to support about 300 families (200 cooperative members and another 100 neighboring families). After two spray on the maize, rice seedbed and other crops the insect has little controlled as reported by the cooperative members. We provided a broad spectrum insecticide called Kitop 50 and two sets of spray through women’s foundation saving and credit cooperative limited (WFSCCL), Bulung, Dolakha. The targeted HHS in Lalitpur, in the ward no. 1 of Bhattedanda VDC of 100 families (population of 550 persons) have benefited from the project marginally: they have received a set of utensils and mattress of cost NPR 1550 each.
Technical training support to local leader farmers:
A total of 100 farmers received training on agriculture technologies in collaboration with local agriculture service centers of the respective districts. It was planned to involve AFU in the training and capacity development activities, however AFU could not manage to do so, because of their human resource limitations. The technicians of district agriculture development offices provided their cooperation and support to provide such training. It was found that the training program enabled farmers to receiver their agriculture system damaged by earthquake.
3.3 Support to Farmer's Field Schools (FFS):
Initially 100 farmers were planned for farmer’s field schools, activity in collaboration with AFU (Agriculture and Forestry University) through five farmers’ schools - two in Dolakha and three in Kabhre. However, the project managed to extend support for two schools conducted for 70 women farmers, due to the lack of trained teachers in place and time constrainst of the particpants. The objective of conducting farerms field schools were to raise awareness about the sustianble farming activities among the farmers, help for recover the agriculture system of the farmers that had damaged by the earthquake.
Farmer's field schools (insect pest control) two schools with 35 persons in each school and facilitated by the local facilitators. Farmers field schools conducted for 17 weeks and completed for crop cycle. FS has very positive impact on the farmers in order to generate hope for life and livelihoods. All the participant of the farmer’s field schools ware women, the members of the cooperative both in Kabhre and Dolakha. Farmer’s field schools were concluded by organizing farmer's field days in each district, in concluding ceremony, Paola Ciardi was chief guest of the one of such programme in which people from different walks of life were participated. The invitees were felicitated with green organic vegetable presentation.
4. Temporary Shelter and House Reconstruction:
After the devastating earthquake, Sarbodaya Nepal conducted a rapid assessment on the immediate need of the affected population. The report revealed that most of the families expressed need for temporary shelter as their first priority both in Kabhre and Dolakha. Accordingly, with support of FRL and other donors FRL managed to distribute the CGI (corrugated Galvanized Iron) sheets to the affected members of cooperatives as an emergency response and humanitarian action.
4.1 CGI (Corrugated Galvanized Iron) sheet distribution:
Sarbodaya Nepal has successfully distributed CGI sheet to 351 families/hhs covering 195 families in Dolakha and 151families in Kabhreplanchok as roofing materials for temporary shelters. These HHs were selected by the board of the cooperative and many of the HHs were female-headed.
In the project sits almost all people had lost their houses and they really in needed to roofing materials, which cost approximately NPR 6,500 in Dolakha and whereas in Kabhre NPR 5,700 per family. There are wide varieties and price range of CGI sheets in the market, however, Sarbodaya decided to provide the moderate price and optimum quality CGI sheets. According the information disseminated by the factories the price of one bundle CGI sheets range was from NPR 3600 to 12000 (color one). We chose moderate price NPR 5700 in Kabhre and NPR 6500 in Dolakha. Because of transportation the cost of CGI sheet in Dolakha went up nearly one thousand per bundle additional.
The CGI sheets are distributed by organizing distribution programme among the members of cooperative in presence of VDC secretary, in charge of local health post, local police, agriculture service center, and livestock service center and village chieftains. All members of women’s foundation saving credit cooperative limited (FSCCL) Dolakha from Bulung and Laduk VDCs. The CGI sheets were used to construct temporary huts for temporary arrangement till the end of August. From August they will start reconstruction work, by using the wood extracted from the damaged house, CGI sheets provided by different agencies including the government of Nepal and till then they will have earthquake resistant dole house design from the government develop by wide consultation with international communities, universities and government systems.
After receiving the CGI sheets the members of cooperative have expressed their highly positive feeling, they really felt relieved from the big threat of water, sun, insects, wildlife and social problems. Though one bundle of CGI sheet is not enough for each family, for a family size of 4-6 members, they required an area of 550 square feet for sleeping, kitchen and storehouse. However they are temporarily managing with one bundle, some of them who owned CGI sheet before roofed houses are using by extracting form the damaged house. The feeling of the recipients:
The distribution of CGI sheets raised hope of safe living during monsoon and also raise hope to work for future, otherwise the devastating earthquake forced to think about damage, destroy and death. At the time of earthquake we closely felt the death, because some of us who lost our beloved one. The relief Sarbodaya Nepal and FRL provided really give feeling of some people are strongly backing us, raising our expectation of good future.
4.2 Provision of reconstruction materials:
Initially there was provision of construction materials at nominal amount of support for reconstruction of their houses for 350 families after the monsoon phase. However this activity was planned as in case funding availability. Later on no resources were used for this activity. This activity was diverted to reconstruction loan provided by the cooperatives under this project provision.
4.3 Reconstruction training (mason/carpentry)
A total of 47 persons/masons received skill training on earthquake resilient constructions in Kabhre (17 persons) and Dolakha (30 person). The training was for 5-days to enhance their existing skills on resilient building construction techniques. In Kabhre the training was conducted during October 31 to November 04, 2015, however, in Dolakha the training was conducted during 20-26 December, 2015. The experienced skill trainers were hired from Nepal society for earthquake technology (NSET) for mason training. Such training found effective in terms of enhancing their knowledge and skill on construction of earthquake resistant building. After such training it has been reported that their employability as well as daily wages have been increased. The community people also get skilled masons for services for resilient and safe house constructions.
4.4 Model House Construction
Originally there was a plan of 20 houses construction and demonstrated in collaboration with other partners like development alliance UK. Later on there was no possibility for rising funding from Development Alliance UK. The project had managed to construct one earthquake resistant model house in Kabhre. The model house was handed over to one of the single women. The design of the model of the house has been shred with district development committee of Kabhre district Shelters and support for house reconstruction: The house was estimated a cost of NPR 150,000.00 out of which the project managed to provide NPR 87000.00 ( EURO: 750).
5.Emergency Micro-credit ( reconstruction loan) house reconstruction:
It was planned that Emergency micro-credit (microcredit E. 100 to E. 200 for house reconstruction repairs for cooperative members to be reimbursed in two years at 3 to 5% interest with target of 100 members of two cooperatives (60 in Kabhre and 40 in Dolakha). The emergency micro credit fund was established in both of the cooperatives. Initially, NPR 600,000.00 for Dolakha and NPR 900,000.00 for Kabhre, however, it was revised as NPR 900000 for Dolakha and NPR 1000000 for Kabhre based on field situation and respecting the demand of cooperatives
In the situation of disaster, recovery of financial service plays an important role in strengthening income generation and recovery of livelihood of affected population. However, the access to credit for poor women is considered as very rigid and bureaucratic process while borrowing from formal sources. In addition, collateral requirements also limit access to credit, especially for the women and young girls, as generally they do not have any control over the household fixed assets such as land other property. Although there are some informal loans access may be available but it is often expensive and exploitative possibly leading to fall into debt trap. Considering the situation, Sarbodya Nepal in consultation with members of cooperative considered establishing a Relief and rehabilitation fund in 2 Women's Cooperatives in Kabhre and Dolakha district to increase access of women to credit and financial resources as well as support their shelter recovery.
This action was found effective in terms of enhancing (i) accessibility to financial resources (ii) financing capacity of the young girls and women (iii) increased level of confidence. Such loan proved successful not only for complement for house construction but also aid to cope with financial risk and crisis.
The cooperatives disbursed the loan to the member as per the guideline developed by the Sarbodaya Nepal micro finance consultant within the range of NPR 15000 to 25000 per member. However this amount became very small and the members requested increase the ceiling up to NPR 50000.00. Based on which the consultant changed the guideline and upper ceiling was fixed to NPR 50000. The cooperatives distributed accordingly. It was found that the money has used basically for procurement of reconstruction materials for houses..
6. Material and counseling support to children:
6.1 Counseling in support in the schools
Moral boosting types of training sessions were conducted in the local government schools, for this cultural shows were organized by using the national level artist in Kabhre. Trained FCHV provided training to children, teachers and other people in community. Most of these sessions were group counseling on the issue of health and hygiene in emergency and prevention measures.
6.2 Drinking Water Reconstruction support
Sarbodaya Nepal successfully provided technical and financial support for repairing and maintaining drinking water supply system in the following 2 schools and 1 community in order to response the emergency need:
a) Community water supply system in Kuikel village of Banepa, Kabhre
b) Shri Shanti Adarsha Higher Secondary School, Laduk VDC ward No- 5, Dolakha
c) Shri Sarada Secondary School, Bulung ward No- 4 Simchaur, Dolakha
The total cost drinking water scheme in Kabhre was NPR 1,28,150 (Euro 1114) out of which project contributed NPR 100,000 (Euro: 869) and rest paid by the communities including local materials . A total of 50 families are using the water for cooking, cleaning, and for livestock. The user committee has sent the water for quality test to hydrology lab in Banepa.
In Dolakha, two schools are supported to reconstruction of drinking water system. A total of 1020 students and 22 staff teachers benefited with this drinking water projects. The cost of Sarada secondary school Bulung is NPR 1,17,000 (Euro: 1017). Project contributed NPR 1,00,000.00 (Euro: 869) and remaining by the school. Likewise in Shanti higher secondary school Laduk total cost of the drinking water project NPR 120,000 (Euro: 1043) out of which project contributed NPR 100,000 (Euro: 869)only.